Though i think they are mainly superb there is still a matter of source criticism and the fact that a lot of what we “know” is merely educated guesses at best.
*The term “Pagan” here seems to be put mainly on north European warrior type cultures (Celts, Germanics,Slavs, Finns) while in fact the term is generally applied to pre Christian / Islamic / Judaic cultures in general (especially in the areas that where to become dominated by Abrahamic religions.
Also, religous cult acts spanning thousands of years in different cultures (though “neighburs” by our standards) are a bit TOO compared.
* There is a lot of talk about a “Deal with nature” and “pagans” are portrayed as living close to it. Fact is that many Pagan cultures had large urban centers, priestly classes, centralized cults and reciprocality was between man and cosmic powers, not “only” local ones.
The “domains” of many Gods have little to do with nature (in the “stroll in the woods” sense of the word).
* It is easy to get the idea that all bog bodies where sacrifices. Fact is in many cases we dont know if it was sacrifice, execution, murder or , most likely all of these (or at least different reasons depending on culture and region).
Bog bodies have been found all over Europe ( well, at least Denmark, Ireland and Germany and others).
“Old Crogan Man” in Ireland was Hacked to pieces, got his nipples cut of and seems to have been spread along a border (?). One speculation is a former King being deposed.
“Tollund Man” in Denmark was hanged. One speculation is that it was a sacrifice to Odin (Hangadrott = God of the hanged).
*Describing Viking Age society as “homophibic” is only correct in some definitions of “Viking Age” (this silly term).
My research seems to indicate that showing a lack of masulinity, or outright femeninity, in a man only was seen as causing “ergi” after the comming of Christianity (there was no clear “border” where Norse people suddenly became Christian, it was gradual).
If somone has sources contradicting this i would love to study them.
Also, sex between men wasnt the problem, it was lack of maskulinity that caused the “ergi”.
The interpretation from a practical standpoint would be that the “active” part was considered dominant (and thus still manly), while the passive / recieving one would be considered submissive (less manly).
There where threats of rape between men in the Sagas (thus indicating that the perpetrator wouldnt be seen as unmanly, while the victim, ofcourse, would be humiliated).
My personal guess is that earlier Germanic societies (like most European societies) couldnt care less who you slept with as long as you married the opposite sex (wich was more a practical business than romantic anyway).
Just saying, there is no way of comparing Germanic rural,decentralized blots with the large temple, centralized cult of Ra Herekty in Egypt.
Both would be classified as “pagan” by many though.
Both where “sacrificial” and both had sacral Kingship but that´s pretty much it.