Morning Talk With Anisette


As always i stayed up rather late (or until early to be more precise).

Life here is simply so boring that it pays off more to be awake at night (daytime tv is almost painful).

So when Anisette called at 10 am i was quite an irritated caffeinist.

However we had a long talk covering both Burundi (his native country), cultural differences even within a country (comparing Småland to Gothenburg and so on) and i managed to get some coffee into me.

Anyway, i´m mainly writing to try out this “quick post” function where you dont have to go beyond the “Home” to post.

I have sometimes wondered if short comments might be a “thing” rather than posting on the usual social media.

After all, a blog feels more “mine” than posting on Facebook or any similar place.

Back to my coffee….

Genetic History of Europe



 

 

The genetic history of Europe can be inferred from the patterns of genetic diversity across continents and time. The primary data to develop historical scenarios coming from sequences of mitochondrial, Y-chromosome and autosomal DNA from modern populations and if available from ancient DNA. European populations have a complicated demographic and genetic history, including many successive periods of population growth.

Relation between Europeans and other populations

According to Cavalli-Sforza’s work, all non-African populations are more closely related to each other than to Africans; supporting the hypothesis that all non-Africans descend from a single old-African population. The genetic distance from Africa to Europe (16.6) was found to be shorter than the genetic distance from Africa to East Asia (20.6), and much shorter than that from Africa to Australia (24.7). He explains:

…both Africans and Asians contributed to the settlement of Europe, which began about 40,000 years ago. It seems very reasonable to assume that both continents nearest to Europe contributed to its settlement, even if perhaps at different times and maybe repeatedly. It is reassuring that the analysis of other markers also consistently gives the same results in this case. Moreover, a specific evolutionary model tested, i.e., that Europe is formed by contributions from Asia and Africa, fits the distance matrix perfectly (6). In this simplified model, the migrations postulated to have populated Europe are estimated to have occurred at an early date (30,000 years ago), but it is impossible to distinguish, on the basis of these data, this model from that of several migrations at different times. The overall contributions from Asia and Africa were estimated to be around two-thirds and one-third, respectively”.

This particular model used an Out of Africa migration 100,000 years ago which separated Africans from non-Africans followed by a single admixture event 30,000 years ago leading to the formulation of the European population. The admixture event consisted of a source population that was 35% African and 65% East Asian. However the study notes that a more realistic scenario would include several admixture events occurring over a sustained period. In particular they cite the spread of farming from a source population in West Asia 5000–9000 years ago may have played a role in the genetic relatedness of Africans and Europeans since West Asia is sandwiched in between Africa and Central Asia. The model assumed an out of Africa migration 100kya and a single admixture event 30kya. However, most contemporary studies have more recent dates that place the out of Africa migration 50-70kya. The study also involved a direct comparison between Sub-Saharan Africans (Central Africans and Senegalese) and Europeans. North Africans population were omitted from the study as they are known to have both Eurasian and Sub-Saharan admixture. These considerations might help explain the apparent short genetic distance between Europeans and Africans.

A later study by Bauchet, which utilised ~ 10 thousand autosomal DNA SNPs arrived at similar results. Principal component analysis clearly identified four widely dispersed groupings corresponding to Africa, Europe, Central Asia and South Asia. PC1 separated Africans from the other populations, PC2 divided Asians from Europeans and Africans, whilst PC3 split Central Asians apart from South Asians.

♥ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_history_of_Europe ♥

pic ♥ The distribution of the V-13 sub-lineage of haplogroup E1b1b in Europe

Timeless Taboo: New Attacks on African Spirituality


 

 

by Ezinne Adibe

Atlanta Post

On January 13, 2010 Pat Robertson, founder and chairman of the Christian Broadcasting Network,  stated that Haiti “swore a pact to the devil.”  This was one day after a 7.0 earthquake rocked the island nation resulting in massive loss of life. The “pact” Robertson so confidently mentioned to various media outlets was a reference to the Haitian Revolution, more specifically, the Bwa Kayiman (Bois Caiman) Ceremony in August of 1791.

The event is significant because Africans of varying ethnicities joined together in a traditional ceremony to affirm that they would no longer remain enslaved.  The insurrection in Saint-Domingue (modern Haiti), in what would become known as the Haitian Revolution, resulted in the establishment of a Haitian republic in 1804.  The “devil” Robertson spoke of was a reference to the African gods invoked by Haitians to overthrow their French oppressors.

This practice of referring to anything in the realm of African spirituality as evil or devilish is a continuation of the propaganda used by missionaries, slave traders, and colonizers ever since they ventured onto the continent.  Enslaved Africans were treated as a people without culture.  They were reduced to being treated as cargo.  Africans were viewed as heathens because they had their own religious traditions prior to the introduction of Christianity and Islam.  These traditions include ancestor veneration, systems of initiation and respect for the natural environment.

African Traditions in the Americas

African spiritual systems, which fall under the category of African Traditional Religion (ATR), are the traditions that have sustained us since time immemorial.  Enslaved Africans brought these traditions to such places as Haiti, Brazil, Cuba, New Orleans, Florida, and South Carolina. They can be seen in the burial custom of placing items on the graves of deceased family members, knowledge of certain ritualistic and medicinal practices, known under various names as juju, hoodoo, rootwork, etc.  They can be seen in the tradition of adorning trees with bottles, vessels, and other objects to protect the household through invocation of the dead as noted in places like Mississippi, South Carolina, and Virginia.

The Divide


Have you had your shoes shined by a guy who doesent own a pair of his own?

I have!

In my fathers homeland.

I gave him my sandals and walked the rest of the time in Dr Martens…..in Africa.

I´m such a fucking nice guy am i not? *Ironic*

Those sandals elevated him in status as soon as he put them on.

Did i help out my kin?Get some food for thought? Or did i get to feel like the benevolent white guy (i´m not white, my father is from down there, leaving me looking like a member of the Simpsons, yellowish)?

Sweden was poverty struck too just a bit over a century ago.

Swedes fled to Minnesota to avoid starvation. We where also a superpower before that.

A culture, like a person has to get used to things going in waves.

And a culture, like a person has to get used to waking up now and again with a fucking hangover.

Meet the Khoisan people of Africa.


The term Khoisan is actually a unifying term for two similar groups: the foraging San and pastoral Khoi.

One thing you might notice is their surprisingly light skin tone for being a southern African group. They’re also rather short, averaging from 4’9” to 5’4” with long legs and torsos, which distinguishes them sharply from their darker skinned Bantu and Bayaka (if anyone knows a better term for this ethnic group, please tell me. It was the best generalized name I could find aside from the distasteful “Pygmies” and I’m still not sure if it’s neutral enough to not be offensive) neighbors with their characteristically shorter torso shapes. In what I consider to be their most beautiful characteristics, they are noted for their high, broad cheekbones and epicanthic eye folds.

Genetic studies have shown that the Khoisan are likely to be the first ethnic group to split from the rest of Homo sapiens as we spread across the globe. It should be noted that this does not mean that they represent an archaic, under-evolved subset of humanity, as they like the rest never stopped evolving over time.

Linguistically, they’re also different from their neighbors in having their own language group, which developed the unique and famed click consonants that Bantu languages later adopted. There are also vast differences in their languages over a relatively small region, which provides evidence that they were the dominant culture in south western Africa before Bantu people moved in around 2000 BCE, whose languages are all comparatively similar in the same region. So, essentially, the Khoisan languages had time to split from their common ancestor dramatically in the region, while the local Bantu languages’ common ancestor hasn’t had as much time to do so in the region, if that makes a bit more sense, before Dutch arrival in 1642.

This population is probably most famous for the women’s significantly increased likelihood of steatopygia, or large deposits of fat around the buttocks as well as an extended (3-4 inches) labia minora. Women with these developments are considered very beautiful by their people, but were considered oddities by Europeans. Predictably, at least two of these women were taken around Europe as side show attractions, known as “Hottentot Venuses”. The most famous was Saartjie (Sahr-kee) Baartman (a name in Afrikaans after Dutch settlement), known as “Sarah” to English speakers. She was orphaned after a commando raid on her village, so her birth name is unknown. She was kept as a slave by Dutch farmers near Cape Town until her owner’s brother suggested she be taken to Europe for exhibition, promising her wealth. She was taken around Britain in 1810, shortly after the 1807 Slave Trade Act, which created a controversy, as abolitionist groups pressured unsuccessfully for her release. She was questioned in front of a court and stated that she was not under restraint and would collect half of the profits, though there is evidence of coercion. Soon, she was sold to a Frenchman and was put on a more pressured exhibit for fifteen months by an animal trainer named Regu. During this time she also posed for scientific paintings nude to show her genitalia, which she previously had refused to do. When her exhibit lost popularity in Paris, she became an alcoholic and earned a living with prostitution until her early death in 1815 from an unknown illness— possibly small pox or syphilis. Her skeleton, preserved brain, and preserved genitals were put on display until 1974. After decades of legal battles, her remains were finally returned to Africa were she’s buried on the top of a hill near her home in 2002.

Saartjie Baartman

Trailer for Vénus Noire, a French-language 2010 film about Saartjie.