Sacral King


In many historical societies, the position of kingship carries a sacral meaning, that is, it is identical with that of a high priest and of judge. The concept of theocracy is related, although a sacred king need not necessarily rule through his religious authority; rather, the temporal position itself has a religious significance.

 

 

 

Germanic kingship refers to the customs and practices surrounding kings among the pagan Germanic tribes of the Migration period (circa AD 300-700) and the kingdoms of the Early Middle Ages (circa AD 700-1000). The title of king (Proto-Germanic:*kuningaz) is in origin that of the leader elected as sacral and military leader from out of a noble family, usually considered of divine ancestry, in the pagan period.

The Germanic monarchies were originally pagan, but their contact, during the Völkerwanderung or Migration Period, with the Roman Empire and the Christian Church greatly altered their structure and developed into the feudal monarchy of the High Middle Ages.

The term “barbarian monarchy” is sometimes used in the context of those Germanic rulers that after AD 476 and during the 6th century ruled territories formerly part of the Western Roman Empire, especially the Barbarian kings of Italy. In the same context, Germanic law is also termed leges barbarorum “barbarian law” etc.

 

 

Election of a King at “The Stones Of Mora” by Olaus Magnus

 

 

The Germanic king originally had three main functions:

  • To serve as judge during the popular assemblies.
  • To serve as a priest during the sacrifices.
  • To serve as a military leader during wars.

The office was received hereditarily, but a new king required the consent of the people before assuming the throne. All sons of the king had the right to claim the throne, which often led to co-rulership (diarchy) where two brothers were elected kings at the same time. This evolved into the territories being considered the hereditary property of the kings, patrimonies, a system which fueled feudal wars, because the kings could claim ownership of lands beyond their de facto rule.

As a sort of pagan high priest, the king often claimed descent from some deity. In the Scandinavian nations, he administered blóts at important cult sites, such as the Temple at Uppsala. Refusal to administer the blóts could lead to the king losing power (see Haakon the Good and Anund Gårdske).

According to the testimony of Tacitus (Germania), the early Germanic peoples had an elective monarchy already in the 1st century.

“They choose their kings by birth, their generals for merit. These kings have not unlimited or arbitrary power, and the generals do more by example than by authority.

 

 

The notion has prehistoric roots and is found worldwide, on Java as in sub-Saharan Africa, with shaman-kings credited with rain-making and assuring fertility and good fortune. On the other hand, the king might also be designated to suffer and atone for his people, meaning that the sacral king could be the pre-ordained victim of a human sacrifice, either regularly killed at the end of his term in the position, or sacrificed in times of crisis (e.g. Domalde).

Among the Ashanti, a new king was flogged before being enthroned.

From the Bronze Age Near East, enthronement and anointment of a monarch is a central religious ritual, reflected in the titles Messiah or Christwhich became separated from worldly kingship. Thus, Sargon of Akkad described himself as “deputy of Ishtar“, just as the Pope is considered the “Vicar of Christ“.

The king is styled as a shepherd from earliest times, e.g., the term was applied to Sumerian princes such as Lugalbanda in the 3rd millennium BC. The image of the shepherd combines the themes of leadership and the responsibility to supply food and protection as well as superiority.

As the mediator between the people and the divine, the sacral king was credited with special wisdom (e.g. Solomon) or vision (oneiromancy).

 

Examples

Sacral kingship was carried into the Middle Ages by considering kings installed by the grace of god

Theodism and Sacral Kingship


Pagan ‘King’ Has Council GOP Nod

Dan Halloran performs a ceremony with other members of his faith.


By Brian M. Rafferty
Dan Halloran, the Republican candidate for City Council facing primary winner Kevin Kim in the 19th District, already has a leadership role in a vast community that very few people know about – or understand.

Halloran is the “First Atheling,” or King, of Normandy, a branch of the Theod faith of pre-Christian Heathen religions assembled in the Greater New York area. A group of dedicated fellow pagans swear their allegiance to him through oaths of fidelity, allowing luck from a series of ancient gods – specifically the “Norse” or “Germanic” gods Odin, Tyr and Freyr – to pass through the King to his kinsmen.

“It is our hope to reconstruct the pre-Christian religion of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European peoples, within a cultural framework and community environment,” Halloran – who in many circumstances surrounding his religion goes by his ancestral name O’Halloran – wrote on his tribe’s Web site.

“We believe in and honor the Gods and Goddesses of the North, spirits of the land, and the memories of our ancestors,” he wrote.

Within minutes of speaking with the Tribune Wednesday, Halloran’s site was listed as “under construction.”

When asked Wednesday about his faith, Halloran was uneasy. “I am not comfortable with injecting my religion into my politics,” he said. “I grew up born and raised Roman Catholic. I went to Jesuit schools. Most of my life has been in traditional Irish household.”

He added, “I don’t think any of this is really relevant to the City Council race. It’s like talking about what church you pray at. That you understand the divine is the most important part.”

Theodism relies upon an interlocking ring of honor, wisdom and generosity to motivate the individual members to achieve a spiritual evolution. “Any earthly life that a man doesn’t die out of as a better and worthier man than he was born into it is seen, in these terms, as a wasted life, ultimately bound for Hel [sic] after death,” Halloran wrote on his Web site. He also is listed on at least one Web site as a “Pagan Attorney” and served as legal counsel and incorporating attorney for the New York City Pagan Pride Project.

“Theodism is… an entirely kin and oath-bound community, operating by certain set standards to which the important business of oath-swearing is regularly and officially held,” Halloran’s site reads. “This has the effect of creating a vast web of social and personal connections high and low, weaving together the doom (fate) of those in the web. It is through this web of oaths that the beneficence of the Gods filters down to the individual members of the tribe, through a mechanism called luck.”

Halloran said that his leadership position in his faith is not simple to explain. “Things in non-mainstream religions are not as clear cut and obvious as in mainstream.” Just like Mormons, he said, the hierarchy, roles and responsibilities of members are difficult for somebody outside the faith to comprehend. “It’s different than being a bishop in a Catholic church.”

Though Halloran’s site notes that “Theodism regularly practices blood sacrifice,” he explained that it is similar to the kashrut practices of the Jewish faith.

Active with the Boy Scouts for more than 30 years, Halloran noted that there are existing Scout troops that recognize his faith. “They want you to be cognizant of the divine,” he said.

State Sen. Frank Padavan (R-Bellerose), who said he has known Halloran since the candidate made Eagle Scout, said he was not aware of Halloran’s faith, but did not consider it an issue if the practitioners are “an honorable group.”

“We have every religion under the sun in this district,” Padavan said. “It’s all here; so what? As long as everybody is properly motivated, so be it.”

Halloran explained that Queens GOP Chairman Phil Ragusa and the GOP executive committee were aware of his faith.

Ragusa said Wednesday that Halloran’s religion is not an issue.

“If a person performs and does what he has to do for his district, then he will be a welcome breath of fresh air,” Ragusa said.

He described Halloran as “a traditional person.”

“He seems like a regular guy,” Ragusa said.

Halloran maintained that his faith is not an issue when it comes to serving either the people or his party.

“As long as we proceed in our civic lives with dignity and honor, that’s what matters,” Halloran said.

Reach Editor Brian M. Rafferty at brafferty@queenstribune.com, or (718) 357-7400, Ext. 122.

Dan Halloran from his Paganspace Web page.

Theodism


Theodism, or Þéodisc Geléafa (Old English: “tribal belief”) is thought by some to be a variant or sister movement of US Ásatrú. Theodsmen themselves do not consider Theodism as a variant of Asatru and contend that the two religions are very different. The term Theodism encompasses NormanAngleContinental SaxonFrisianJutishGothicAlemannic,SwedishDanish and other tribal variants. Þéodisc is the adjective of þéod ”people, tribe”, cognate to Dutch/deutsch.

Irminsul

While having some commonalities with the Ásatrú movement following McNallen, Theodism primarily derived its origins as a reaction to Wicca. In 1971, Garman Lord and other practitioners of Gardnerian Wicca founded the The Coven Witan of Anglo-Saxon Wicca. Theodism is focused on the lore, beliefs and social structure – particularly the concept of thew(Old English þeaw) or “customary law” – of various specific Germanic tribes. The main distinction between Theodism and other modern manifestations of Germanic Neopaganism along with pre-Christian religions, the Theodish are also attempting to reconstruct aspects of pre-Christian Germanic social order (including sacral kingship).

King

In general, Théodish religious festivities are referred to as ‘fainings’ (meaning ‘celebration’). As a rule, there are two sorts of rituals; blót and symbelHúsel is technically part of blót. Symbel is normally held after the feast, inasmuch as it is custom not to have food present.

Garman Lord formed the Witan Theod in Watertown, New York, in 1976. A few years later, the Moody Hill Theod emerged as an offshoot of the Witan Theod. In 1988 the Winland Rice was formed as an umbrella organization of Theodish groups. Gert McQueen, Elder and Redesman of the Ring of Troth, was successful in lobbying the U.S. Army Chaplain’s Corps to adopt guidelines for recognizing heathen religions and Theodish belief in particular.

The Winland Rice dissolved in 2002. In 2004, Garman Lord stated that the religion of Theodism does not work in practice, dissolving Gering Theod and declaring Theodism as defunct. Several groups that have continued to call themselves Theodish. Axenthof Thiad originated in the early 1990s as the Fresena Thiad and part of the Winland Rice. In 2005, Gerd Forsta Axenthoves changed the name to Axenthof Thiad. Eric Wodening founded Englatheod in July 2007, while Sweartfenn Theod was founded, by Jeffrey Runokivi, in December 2007. Both groups practice Anglo-Saxon Theodism, and have members that have belonged to both the Winland Rice and the Ealdriht. In New York, the New Normannii Reik of Theodish Belief was founded in 1997 and is led by Dan Halloran but in 2009 many members split off and formed the Arfstoll Church of Theodish Belief, White Marsh Theod, and Álfröðull þjóð.

One famous follower of Theodism is New York City Councilman Daniel J. Halloran.