The Feri Tradition


The Feri Tradition (referred to also as Vicia, Faery, or Anderson Feri) is an initiatory tradition of modern traditional witchcraft. It is an ecstatic, rather than a fertility, tradition stemming from the experience of Cora and Victor Anderson . Strong emphasis is placed on sensual experience and awareness, including sexual mysticism, which is not limited to heterosexual expression.

Among the distinguishing features of the Feri tradition is the use of a specific Feri power or energetic current. Feri witches often see themselves as “fey”: outside social definitions, on the road to Faeryland. They believe that much of reality is unseen, or at least has uncertain boundaries. Within the tradition there is a deep respect for the wisdom of nature, a love of beauty, and an appreciation of bardic and mantic creativity.

Core teachings acknowledged by most branches of the tradition include the concepts of the Three Souls and the Black Heart of Innocence, the tools of Iron and Pearl Pentacle, as well as an awareness of “energy ecology”, which admonishes practitioners to never give away or waste their personal power. Trance experiences and personal connection to the Divine are at the heart of this path, leading to a wide variety of practices throughout the larger body of the tradition.

Feri

Early in 2011, a schism became visible  around philosophical differences between those who wish to teach the religion publicly and for pay and those who prefer the more personal, one-on-one methods traditional to religious witchcraft. Some of the “old Craft” adherents have gone back to the older “Faery” spelling of the tradition in order to distinguish themselves from the more public faction, while others have not.

Feri is not a tradition of Wicca; there are Wiccan groups and traditions sometimes calling themselves “Fairy” (Faerie, Faery, etc.), but these are distinct from the Feri Tradition.

Feri II

Deities of the Feri Tradition

While some lines place a special emphasis on certain deities or pantheons, there is no one pantheon that is universal among Feri. However, certain deities are given special importance in most lines of the tradition:

  • The Goddess is the central deity of Feri. Sometimes referred to as “God Herself”, s/he is the androgynous point of all creation, the primal darkness of deep space, the intelligence of the great Void.
  • The Blue God is frequently said to be the first born of the Goddess. S/he is the spirit of youth and of eroticism and often appears as an androgynous male figure with blue skin and peacock feathers in his hair. S/he is related to the Yazidi angel and indeed some lines of Feri see the two as a single being.

Some practitioners use the lemniscate (infinity symbol) as a cosmological glyph to describe main deities of the tradition, sometimes called The Infinitum. In this system, all gods and goddesses can be placed somewhere on the glyph.

Blue God

Practices and beliefs

There are several practices and beliefs in the larger body of the Feri tradition that are almost universal:

  • The Three Souls. As in Huna, partly from which this concept is derived (other traditions such as Mystical Judaism also have a concept of the three souls), Feri postulates the existence of three separate yet interdependent souls as a part of the natural psychic structure of the human being. Although a multitude of different names are used to describe them, they are sometimes called the fetch, the talker, and the Godself. The talker is that part of humans which is self-aware and deals with language, rational thought, and the gathering and dissemination of knowledge. A central practice of Feri concerns bringing these souls into alignment so they may communicate freely, granting the practitioner a deeper awareness of their own personal Godself and the Goddess.
  • The Iron Pentacle. A symbolic and energetic tool that is used to help realign and purify the practitioner. It is meditated on in various ways.

Feri III

Founders and major figures of the Feri Tradition

  • Victor Anderson was a blind poet and shaman who began teaching the Feri Tradition (then reportedly known variously as Vicia or simply “The Craft”) more or less in its modern form in the 1940s. He began initiating people into the tradition on an individual basis before the 1950s. According to Cora Anderson, Victor received a letter in 1960 from several witches in Italy, among them Leo Martello, asking him to form a coven in California. Victor taught openly for several decades before dying in 2001.

Feri HP

  • Cora Anderson met Victor in Bend, Oregon in 1944. By her account, they had met many times before on the Astral Planes, so upon meeting on the earthly plane recognized each other instantly and married after only three days. Cora was an Appalachian kitchen witch whose folk magic has been credited with helping many. She was best known for her teachings on putting magic into food, her Pagan Rosary, and her books on her life and the Feri Tradition. Cora died on May 1, 2008, 64 years to the day after meeting Victor in person.
  • Gwydion Pendderwen, (Top Picture) Anderson’s Craft “foster son”, worked with him during the 1950s and ’60s, helping to edit and publish Victor’s book, Thorns of the Blood Rose. Gwydion brought in the name “Faery” (later changed to “Feri” to avoid confusion with other groups using similar terms), emphasized Celtic origins almost exclusively in his own practice, with a smattering of Vodou; other teachers have emphasized the Hawaiian, the African-diaspora, or even traced the lineage back to the Attacotti, who were small, dark, possibly southernEuropean settlers in Scotland thousands of years ago. Gwydion later purchased and moved to Annwfn, 55 acres (223,000 m²) of land in Mendocino county he later deeded to theChurch of All Worlds as a gift, and worked psychedelic group shamanic and Vodou rituals. Gwydion produced a large number of articles, rituals, poems, and songs before his death in 1982.

Feri IV

Witchcraft, Paganism and Folk Magic


Witchcraft, Paganism and Folk Magic

By: My Photo

Despite my 20 years of self-identification as a Druid, I spent my early years seeking to be a Witch. This was back in the 1960s and 70s when there was no such thing (mostly) as self-initiation, and no non-initiated popular ‘Wicca’. In the occult fashions of the period, Witchcraft was understood as a religion, one that taught the practice of magic, and that’s what I looked for, and found. You can read some of my stuff on all that, and on the history of the idea of the witch in a back post here.
This post is an effort to compose my mind around the relationship between the terms and concepts ‘witchcraft’, ‘Paganism’ and ‘folk-magic’, sparked by discussions on a Traditional Craft list I’ve been reading. If any of those readers find this controversial, I can only express my respect for the feel and content of the work being done under the Traditional Witchcraft tag, and plead a hardened and skeptical mind…
I’m confused. Or rather I can’t tell whether I’m confused – and that’s really confused.
For the past several years I’ve been reading various books and articles and blogs discussing what is now being called ‘Traditional Witchcraft’ or ‘the traditional Craft’. These books present a form of magical practice, and sometimes of Pagan religion, that claims to represent forms of practice and belief older and more authentically structured than those of the Gardnerianand Alexandrian Crafts, and their popular imitators. Because of my general understanding of the ‘occult’ scene – i.e. that it is traditional to back-date materials and claim lineage and history that one does not have – I have tended to discount the claims of greater age. Because of some obvious-to-me failures of folklore and scholasticism, and because not a single secret document or old artifact has been revealed by any of these systems, I have tended to discount claims that it represents survival Paganism any more than does post-Gardnerian Wicca. So, in this little discussion I mean to set out my thinking on the topics of the survival of Pagan ways into the early modern period (1.e. 1600-ish and later), and how that relates to the practice of magic and other ‘occult’ traditions along the way.

Pagan Survival
First, I still consider it entirely unlikely that worship of European Pagan deities consciously continued into modern times from the late Pagan and medieval periods. There are a couple of possible exceptions, such as the Baltic cultures and possibly a trickle of direct survival among Scandinavians. Baltic Paganism was firmly living in 1250 ce, and some Baltic folk customs have certainly continued unbroken. But even they have trouble showing continuity through the late medieval, and many of the ways were ‘revived’ in the folkish rediscovery times of the late 18th and 19th centuries.

In Western Europe the case is much weaker. Folklore collections of the early modern period do find traces of memory of Pagan images and vocabulary, and literate magical tradition, largely unbroken since the fall of Rome, would flower in the creation of what we call the grimoires in the 1700s and 1800s. In those magical basic-training manuals you can find a few garbled remnants of the ancient Gods, and a great deal of ritual action that is authentically old. However, the possibility of deliberate worship of the classical Gods apart from the seven planets of astrology seems to be undocumented in any way. There are no folkloric or personal records of rites of Pagan worship from early modern times, and those could not have been any more illicit than the manuals of demon-summoning that were extensively copied and distributed. If there were a tradition of Pagan magical and ritual practice that lasted into literate times I’d expect it to have left some remnants.

If we want to measure whether or not some bit of folk culture is “Pagan’ or not, we might use several different standards. Most obviously, we can ask whether the material involves the active worship of Gods or spirits identifiable in pre-Christian sources. In almost every case, this brings us a negative answer – early modern magical and folkloric material has very little of that. We can find a few examples in Gaelic and Scandinavian countries, such as the offering to Manannan in Scotland, or other offerings to the sidhe or troll folk. There also might be a little something in the ‘fairy evocation’ workings of early modern magicians – if we think that King Oberion is some sort of survival. What resemblance later ‘fairy faith’ customs might have to pre-Christian customs is unknowable at this time, but we might give the benefit of that doubt if we like. However, the literate magical tradition, which was so important in transmitting technique and content over the centuries, seems to preserve nearly nothing of this sort. That does not, of course, prove absence but it does make presence less likely.

What seems clear is that traffic with spirits, uses of ‘sympathetic’ magic, herbal charms, other natural charms with bones, skins, woods, etc and many other magical and occult practices did persist into modern times. Is this material ‘Pagan’? If measured by whether or not such things call upon Pagan deities, then the answer would be no. Barring a very few examples from Scandinavia, we see none of that. If close resemblance to practices and customs that Pagans would have used is our measure, there’s some chance for that to be the case. Each of the practices mentioned is clearly described in pre-Christian literate magical sources. On a spiritual level, calling upon land-wights and the dead may be as Pagan in 1890 as in 890, even if all the names have changed. Still, without a conscious intention on the part of the practitioner to call upon spiritual powers other than the Christian pantheon, (including its demons) I’m hesitant to refer to the rites used by 18th and 19th century charmers and cunning folk as Pagan. So, if we don’t classify traditional folk-magic as Pagan, shall we classify it as ‘witchcraft’?

Witchcraft
The word wicce is first plainly used in context of Pagan religion. Of course we have no Germanic mythic or ritual material written down by Pagans (nor any Celtic). Some of the first references to wicce or wicca we find are from Roman church laws and proclamations. I found:
“If any wicca (witch), wiglaer (wizard), false swearer, morthwyrtha (worshipper of the dead) or any foul contaminated, manifest horcwenan(whore), be anywhere in the land, man shall drive them out.”
And:
The word wicca is associated with animistic healing rites in Halitgar’s Latin Penitential (c.890 ce) where it is stated that:
“Some men are so blind that they bring their offering to earth-fast stone and also to trees and to wellsprings, as the witches teach, and are unwilling to understand how stupidly they do or how that dead stone or that dumb tree might help them or give forth health when they themselves are never able to stir from their place.”

These plainly refer to ‘wiccan’(pl) as religious, as well as magical practitioners – there’s little functional difference between religion and magic in many traditional cultures.

It does seem likely that a wicce in Anglo-Saxon Britain would have occupied the place later approximated by the cunning man or woman. Cures, uncrossings, finding lost things, far-seeing and fortelling, dealing with problems with local wights and ghosts would have been standard stock in trade. Because of the screen of the monkish authors, we cannot see whether these same people helped householders to make proper sacrifices, or tended forest shrines and temples, or lived as functional ‘priests’ or ‘clergy’ in villages. I suspect they did. “As the witches teach” seems to me to suggest a central place in religion as well as magic.

Other Christian descriptions of ‘witches’ and ‘witchcraft’ retain this Pagan religious atmosphere. One of the late references to Pagan deity is found in the famous Canon Episcopi (c.875 ce):
“Have you believed or have you shared a superstition to which some wicked women claim to have given themselves, instruments of Satan, fooled by diabolical phantasms? During the night, with Diana, the pagan goddess, in the company of a crowd of other women, they ride the backs of animals, traversing great distances during the silence of the deep night, obeying Diana’s orders as their mistress and putting themselves at her service during certain specified nights. … Thus they leave the true faith and fall into pagan error in believing that a god or goddess can exist besides the only God.”

So from about the same period as the previous clerical reference we have Church authorities plainly identifying Pagan deity as the source of opposition. Certainly we can hold out for ‘witchcraft’ of that period to have been Pagan survival, infused with Pagan religion. This leads me to want to define witchcraft as part of Pagan religious phenomena.

So for their first 500 years or so, the church slowly ate away at the Pagan memory, outlawing the practices, destroying the shrines, and teaching the next generations. The next wave of rinsing-away of Pagan content from European folk tradition seems to have been the propagation of the ‘satanic witch’ by the church. The Pagan gods and spirits, as their ways were forgotten became replaced, in literate narratives and in folk-magic charms, by mythic figures from Christianity. Conjuring that might once have been done under the blessing of the Dead was perhaps transferred to the saints, Gods with the Trinity, etc. Wells and caves were baptised in the new religion. But whatever the church couldn’t fit into it’s ways – the wild revels, the sacrifices, the dealings with strange wights, divinations,etc, became ‘sorcery’ and witchcraft, and eventually heresy.

When the witch ‘craze’ begins, around 1400 the church produces a description of witchcraft that is once again plainly religious. Diana and the nature spirits have been forgotten, and replaced with ‘the Devil’ and his imps. The delightful Pagan revels of folk memory (and likely ongoing practice, whether with or without Pagan religious content) became the outre Witches Sabbath, reviving classical fears of cannibalism, infanticide and debauch.

The greatest blow to folk memory of Pagan ways in Europe seems to have been the Protestant reform. The destruction of the Roman church’s structures and the prohibition of their folk customs was a harsh break in continuity in much of western Europe. The Protestant leaders taught that Catholic rites were little better than witchcraft, and the image of the black-robed wizard and his book and staff owes a great deal to the Protestant memory of the Roman Catholic bishop or priest. In the end folkways often reasserted themselves, but had to be reconstructed, if only from a generation or two of lapse.

Cunning Craft
So, it gets to be 1650 or so, and Europe is blinking and waking up from the stress of the renaissance and reformation, and the birth of science, and the end of church hegemony. We see the birth of the modern wave of occultism, in the Masons and other fraternal orders, the rise of democracy and personal choice in religion, and the synthesis of ritual magic that comes through the grimoires. By this time literacy is more wide-spread; literate magic and folk-magic become closely entwined.

I think that it’s in this period that we see begin to see magical practice divorced from the popular religion of its culture. By the late 1700s both religion and rationalism argued against magic, while the popular demand for the arts remained steady. Religion was no longer monolithic or implicit, and citizens began to view themselves as having a choice as to what and whether they worshipped. The cunning man of that time might have his choice of ideas available in folkways and literature.

Here’s the thing – I don’t see why these secular-ish cunning folk of early modern times are ‘witches’. Witch in parlance by that time almost always meant malefice – the cunning folk mastered witches – that is, they defeated them. A witch-master turned aside the malefice of the witches still imagined by the rural people (or actual evil magic, on occasion, I suppose…). Of course the church’s definition made witchcraft and magic identical – all ‘magic’ (as opposed to orthodox spiritual practice, which was ‘religion’ whether or not it precisely resembled magical techniques) was powered by Satan and his demons, and all magicians had made at least a tacit pact with Satan. So when popular parlance referred to cunningfolk as ‘witches’ they didn’t mean ‘wise ones’ or ‘charmers’, they meant ‘evil magic-users’.

Looking from the perspective of practitioners I have trouble finding much of pre-Christian survival in the cunningman’s bag. Of course some of the basics of magic don’t change, but the content of the material has often been thoroughly Christianized. What has never been discovered is a cunningman’s work in which the devil is worshipped in a religious fashion, or which calls on Pagan gods or spirits (apart from the very Christianized spirits of the planets…). Just at this moment I cannot recall instruction for any cult of the dead practices, or genius-locus practice, though those could be hidden under works about ‘terrestrial demons’, etc. Of course both such spirits are employed implicitly in using natural objects, proper waters, woods, etc, but this is pretty heavily disguised or forgotten in early-modern instructions. To the extent that the cunning worker made a ‘pact’ with some local wight, I suppose that’s a Pagan element in survival.

Now, I do think it’s fair to say that revival Witchcraft has drawn on the cunningman’s sources, while adding a broader list of folklore and mythic sources as a spiritual or religious overlay. Gardner’s quartered circle, tool set, and style of circle-casting owes a good deal to the same grimoire sources that cunningfolk would have known. Methods of divination, of spirit arte and of making charms and talismans have migrated into non-Gardnerian forms of revival. However, as far as I can see, this is a case of modern revivals imitating literary sources. I have yet to encounter any evidence for direct inheritance of Pagan content. In cunning craft we find invocations of God and the Saints, the angels and archangels, demons of the sort found in the grimoires occasionally even of the early-modern notion of ‘fairies’. Most of these have little or no apparent relation to the ways of a wicce, or of a dreeman, much less of a truly pre-Christian, western European magic-user.

All of this inclines me to make a sharp distinction between the cunning man’s art and witchcraft. We have solid vocabulary words that help make sense out of magical practice – folk magic, astrology, conjury, charming, all plainly describe cunning art, while applying the strange term ‘witchcraft’ to it only seems to imply that cunning arts involved the worship of illicit (whether Pagan or demonological) spirits. While some cunning folk did describe their relation with a familiar, all is presented in a thoroughly Christian mythic setting.

Neopagan Witchcraft
I define all known modern examples of conscious Paganism, including Pagan Witchcraft, as Neopagan. I remain unconvinced that active worship of the Old Gods, or unbroken pre-Christian initiatory lineages, continued in secret circles anywhere in Europe – and least likely in western Europe. Therefore all modern people who consciously worship (i.e. enter into magico-religious relationship with) spirits not from the Christian pantheon are drawing on recent (whether 70 years old or 170 years old, oldest…) reconstructions. Thus, we are Neopagans. 

I disapprove of using ‘neopagan’ to refer to or exclude any specific style of modern Paganism. Hellenic or Saxon reconstructionists are as neopagan as tie-dyed eclectics with hoola-hoops. Neopagan refers to the family of magico-religious movements that first arose in the 20th century (maybe the late 19th…) in which I would include Asatru, Wicca, Traditional Witchcraft (not traditional folk-magic), Thelema, the various ethnic reconstructionisms and no doubt a long list of smaller systems. There’s some chance that Baltic religion retains some unbroken lines of practice, but even that is uncertain.

In the same way, I rather think that using ‘witchcraft’ to refer to folk-magic practices divorced from religious context is needlessly confusing, and mixes very different ideas. Witchcraft has almost always referred to systems connected with religion (apart from anthropological usage, which I haven’t dealt with here), and at least the term should be modified by whatever religious system it’s worked in. In this sense one can be a ‘Christian Witch’, even if being a Christian Wiccan is a contradiction in terms (as it would have been in the Old English usage). However, traditional magic-users in cultural intact settings simply don’t use the term ‘witch’ or ‘witchcraft’ for what they do. When you find someone using that term, it almost always indicates conscious reinvention.

Conclusion (-lessness)
So, there’s no real conclusion to this screed…
Those who are attracted to the idea of witchcraft will continue to devise methods to express their self-identification. One of the things I like best about the Trad Craft trend is its interest in using authentic sources to reconstruct what a Pagan cunning practice might be like. For me, as a fairly liberal reconstructionist Pagan, I just don’t have an interest in reconstructing the world or worldview of 17th century Europe – it’s too latter-period, already too stripped of myth and mystery, with only scraps and tag-ends of the pre-Christian material that pushes my buttons. I don’t assume that 17th century folkways retain much of pre-Christian lore, and find archeology and observation of surviving tribal and polytheistc ways to be at least as instructive about what Pagan magic might have looked like as what remained in the last few centuries.

Did this walk through a confused topic make me feel less confused… maybe a little…

Alex Sanders


 Alex Sanders (June 6, 1926 - April 30, 1988), born Orrell Alexander Carter, was an English occultist and High Priest in the Neopaganreligion of Wicca, responsible for founding the tradition of Alexandrian Wicca during the 1960s. Historians have considered him to be one of the most significant figures in the history of the religion, who was noted for bringing it to greater public attention through his publicity seeking efforts and for the various innovations that he introduced into the faith. Being raised in a working class family, he was introduced to esoteric ideas by his mother and grandmother from a young age, and as a young man began working as a medium in the local Spiritualist Churches before going on to study and practice ceremonial magic. In 1963, he was initiated into Gardnerian Wicca before founding his own coven, through which he merged many aspects of ceremonial magic into Gardnerianism, falsely then trying to pass off this tradition, Alexandrianism, as a hereditary tradition that had been handed down to him by his grandmother. Alex Sanders, in full ritual garb  Wicca Sanders’ first contact with Wicca was in the early 1960s, through correspondence and meetings with Patricia Crowther. In September 1962, he succeeded in convincing the Manchester Evening News to run a front-page article on Wicca. This publicity had several unfortunate side-effects for Sanders, including the loss of his job at the library and estrangement from the Crowthers, who considered him a troublesome upstart and refused to initiate him. He was eventually initiated by a priestess who had been a member of the Crowthers’ coven, and with whom Maxine Sanders later worked for several years. It was rumoured that Alex copied the Wiccan Book of Shadows in a Gardnerian’s garage while a party was going on in the house, however according to Maxine he copied his book from his initiator’s book in the normal manner. Soon afterwards, he joined a Gardnerian coven led by Pat Kopanski, which dissolved just over a year later. Sanders worked with several covens, including one led by a priestess called Sylvia. Eventually she and several others left the group amicably, leaving Alex to continue as High Priest. During this period the coven worked at Alex’s home at 24 Egerton Road North, Chorlton-cum-Hardy, Manchester. Sanders continued to attract media attention which brought him more followers. By 1965 he claimed 1,623 initiates in 100 covens, who apparently elected him to the title of King of the Witches.

 

 

Alex Sanders (June 6, 1926 – April 30, 1988), born Orrell Alexander Carter, was an English occultist and High Priest in the Neopaganreligion of Wicca, responsible for founding the tradition of Alexandrian Wicca during the 1960s. Historians have considered him to be one of the most significant figures in the history of the religion, who was noted for bringing it to greater public attention through his publicity seeking efforts and for the various innovations that he introduced into the faith.

Being raised in a working class family, he was introduced to esoteric ideas by his mother and grandmother from a young age, and as a young man began working as a medium in the local Spiritualist Churches before going on to study and practice ceremonial magic. In 1963, he was initiated into Gardnerian Wicca before founding his own coven, through which he merged many aspects of ceremonial magic into Gardnerianism, falsely then trying to pass off this tradition, Alexandrianism, as a hereditary tradition that had been handed down to him by his grandmother.


Alex Sanders, in full ritual garb

Wicca

Sanders’ first contact with Wicca was in the early 1960s, through correspondence and meetings with Patricia Crowther. In September 1962, he succeeded in convincing the Manchester Evening News to run a front-page article on Wicca. This publicity had several unfortunate side-effects for Sanders, including the loss of his job at the library and estrangement from the Crowthers, who considered him a troublesome upstart and refused to initiate him.

He was eventually initiated by a priestess who had been a member of the Crowthers’ coven, and with whom Maxine Sanders later worked for several years. It was rumoured that Alex copied the Wiccan Book of Shadows in a Gardnerian’s garage while a party was going on in the house, however according to Maxine he copied his book from his initiator’s book in the normal manner.

Soon afterwards, he joined a Gardnerian coven led by Pat Kopanski, which dissolved just over a year later. Sanders worked with several covens, including one led by a priestess called Sylvia. Eventually she and several others left the group amicably, leaving Alex to continue as High Priest. During this period the coven worked at Alex’s home at 24 Egerton Road North, Chorlton-cum-Hardy, Manchester. Sanders continued to attract media attention which brought him more followers. By 1965 he claimed 1,623 initiates in 100 covens, who apparently elected him to the title of King of the Witches.

 

Gerald Gardner


 Gerald Brousseau Gardner (June 13, 1884 - February 12, 1964), who sometimes used the craft name Scire, was an influential EnglishWiccan, as well as an amateur anthropologist and archaeologist, writer, weaponry expert and occultist. He was instrumental in bringing theNeopagan religion of Wicca to public attention in Britain and wrote some of its definitive religious texts. He himself typically referred to the faith as “witchcraft” or “the witch-cult”, its adherents “the Wica”, and he claimed that it was the survival of a pre-Christian pagan Witch cult that he had been initiated into by a New Forest coven in 1939. Gardner spent much of his life abroad in southern and south-eastern Asia, where he developed an interest in many of the native peoples, and wrote about some of their magical practices. It was after his retirement and return to England that he was initiated into Wicca by the New Forest coven. Subsequently fearing that this religion, which he apparently believed to be a genuine continuance of ancient beliefs, would die out, he set about propagating it through initiating others, mainly through the Bricket Wood coven, and introduced a string of notable High Priestesses into Wicca, including Doreen Valiente, Lois Bourne, Patricia Crowther and Eleanor Bone. He would go on to develop his own variant of the Craft that has come to be named after him, Gardnerian Wicca, which combined the teachings that he had received from the New Forest coven with additional ideas taken from a number of disparate sources, including Freemasonry, ceremonial magic, mediaevalgrimoires and the writings of the occultist Aleister Crowley, a man whom Gardner knew personally. He also published two books on the subject of Wicca, Witchcraft Today (1954) and The Meaning of Witchcraft (1959), along with a couple of novels, and ran the Museum of Magic and Witchcraft on the Isle of Man, which was devoted to the subject. For this, he has left an enduring legacy on the modern Wiccan and Neopagan movement, and is frequently referred to as “the Father of Wicca”.

Gerald Brousseau Gardner (June 13, 1884 – February 12, 1964), who sometimes used the craft name Scire, was an influential EnglishWiccan, as well as an amateur anthropologist and archaeologistwriterweaponry expert and occultist. He was instrumental in bringing theNeopagan religion of Wicca to public attention in Britain and wrote some of its definitive religious texts. He himself typically referred to the faith as “witchcraft” or “the witch-cult”, its adherents “the Wica”, and he claimed that it was the survival of a pre-Christian pagan Witch cult that he had been initiated into by a New Forest coven in 1939.

Gardner spent much of his life abroad in southern and south-eastern Asia, where he developed an interest in many of the native peoples, and wrote about some of their magical practices. It was after his retirement and return to England that he was initiated into Wicca by the New Forest coven. Subsequently fearing that this religion, which he apparently believed to be a genuine continuance of ancient beliefs, would die out, he set about propagating it through initiating others, mainly through the Bricket Wood coven, and introduced a string of notable High Priestesses into Wicca, including Doreen ValienteLois BournePatricia Crowther and Eleanor Bone. He would go on to develop his own variant of the Craft that has come to be named after him, Gardnerian Wicca, which combined the teachings that he had received from the New Forest coven with additional ideas taken from a number of disparate sources, including Freemasonryceremonial magic, mediaevalgrimoires and the writings of the occultist Aleister Crowley, a man whom Gardner knew personally.

He also published two books on the subject of Wicca, Witchcraft Today (1954) and The Meaning of Witchcraft (1959), along with a couple of novels, and ran the Museum of Magic and Witchcraft on the Isle of Man, which was devoted to the subject. For this, he has left an enduring legacy on the modern Wiccan and Neopagan movement, and is frequently referred to as “the Father of Wicca”.

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The Roaring Twenties.

Appearantly Louise Brooks can still make a scandal……at least at facebook!

Appearantly Louise Brooks can still make a scandal……at least at facebook!

 

About the 1920´s. Charleston, Jazz

Flappers, Prohibition, Gangsters,Dances,Fashion,Hairstyles,Make Up,Attitudes

http://jazzage.tumblr.com/

 

 

Forn Sed

(via wyrdsister)

 

Asatru,Heathenry, Norse History, Viking Age,Scandinavia,Vikings,Norse Mythology,Culture, Language,Runes

http://fornsed.tumblr.com/

 

Esoterica

Hermes Trismegistos

 

Hermes Trismegistos

 

Occult, Kabbala, Alchemy, Magick, Mysticism,Freemasonry,Hermeticism,Gnostisism,Thelema,Paganism

http://westernmystery.tumblr.com/